Thyroxine Synthesis Pathway
These pathways play an essential role in determining th bioavailability.
Thyroxine synthesis pathway. You can learn all the steps of thyroidthyroxine hormone synthesis below. Levothyroxine is a synthetic form of thyroxine t 4 an endogenous hormone secreted by the thyroid gland which is converted to its active metabolite l triiodothyronine t 3. The higher the bmr the more calories an individuals body burns and the faster the metabolism. Indeed after the active transport of iodide into the thyroid cell every subsequent step of triiodothyronine t 3 and thyroxine t 4 formation occurs within the tg molecule.
This is an active process. Thyroxine hormone is produced in the thyroid gland from tyrosine and iodine. Thyroid hormones th 3535 tetraiodothyronine or thyroxine t4 and 353 triiodothyronine t3 contain iodine atoms as part of their structure and their synthesis occur in the unique structures called thyroid follicles. Thyroid hormone synthesis is intimately tied with thyroglobulin tg.
Meanwhile a sodium iodide nai symporter pumps iodide i actively into the cell which previously has crossed the endothelium by largely unknown mechanisms. In the first step iodide is transported to inside of thyroid gland. Thyroxine is the main hormone produced by the thyroid gland and what controls the bodys basal metabolic rate bmr. The production and release of thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine is controlled by a feedback loop system that involves the hypothalamus in the brain and the pituitary and thyroid glands.
A persons basal metabolic rate refers to the minimum number of calories he needs to survive in the absence of any activity. It stimulates the production of thyroid stimulating hormone tsh in the anterior pituitary gland which affects the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor tshr. Active iodide transport into thyroid followed by iodide oxidation and subsequent iodination of tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin tg to produce idotyrosines monoidotyrosine mit and diiodothyrosine dit on tg. Circulating th consisting mainly of the prohormone thyroxine t4 can be metabolized by a number of different pathways resulting in 1 formation of the active hormone triiodothyronine t3 2 deactivation of t 4 and t 3 or 3 excretion of t 4 and subsequent metabolites.
T 4 and t 3 bind to thyroid receptor proteins in the cell nucleus and cause metabolic effects through the control of dna transcription and protein synthesis. The hypothalamus secretes thyrotropin releasing hormone which in turn stimulates the pituitary gland to produce thyroid stimulating hormone. Tetraidothyronine t4 and triiodothyronine t3 are the two vital hormones in human metabolism produced by thyroid gland. The major pathways in thyroid hormone biosynthesis begin with iodine metabolism which occurs in three sequential steps.
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